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QUESTION

In Job 38:7 (ESV), Jehovah claims that the cornerstone of the earth was laid

when the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy

implying that the morning stars were living beings.

In Revelation 22:16 (ESV), Jesus calls himself "the bright Morning Star":

I, Jesus, have sent my angel to testify to you about these things for the churches. I am the root and the descendant of David, the bright morning star.

The Devil also seems to be a morning star, according to Isaiah 14:12 (World English Bible). Translations seem to vary a lot on this one.

How you have fallen from heaven, morning star, son of the dawn!

Who are the morning stars?

{ asked by Tim N }

ANSWER

Who are the morning stars?

From the text, I would say the morning stars are the sons of God that are mentioned. This passage seemed to follow a common parallel format found in the surrounding text. Look at the repetitious nature of the surrounding passages for my reasoning:

5 Who determined its measurements—surely you know!
    Or who stretched the line upon it?

Note here the phrases "determined its measurements" and "stretched the line upon it," how they communicate the same thing.

6 On what were its bases sunk,
    or who laid its cornerstone,

Again here in verse six, "its bases sunk" and "laid its cornerstone," communicating the same thing.

7 when the morning stars sang together
    and all the sons of God shouted for joy?

Following the battern before, the morning stars and the sons of God would be the same item.

8 "Or who shut in the sea with doors
    when it burst out from the womb,

Again, the sea is shut in, and it bursts out.

9 when I made clouds its garment
    and thick darkness its swaddling band,

And once again, the clouds are a garment, and the thick darkness is a swaddling band. Again communicating the same thing.

From the text, I think it's clear that the sons of God are the morning stars. But who are the sons of God?

According to Job 1:6 and 2:1, these were beings that would present themselves before the LORD, and Satan would come along with them. This leads me to believe they are Angels. I don't think they can be people, since no people existed at the time God laid the foundations of the Earth (Job 38:6), therefore no people could have shouted for joy (Job38:7).

Who is the Morning Star?

As you pointed out, Jesus also holds a similar title, although his is the "bright and morning star." Clearly the title "morning star" is not exclusive to Jesus, else we would have a rather odd doctrine being taught in Job 38:7.

Christ is also called the "Son of God," while there are many sons of God. Again, Job 38:7 states this, but we also know that men are often times called the sons of God (Romans 8:14, 9:26, Galatians 3:26, etc).

It's important to note here that titles don't necessarily require exclusivity. While there are many sons of God, there is only one Son of God. And while there are many morning stars, there is only one Morning Star.

What about Satan, or Lucifer?

Isaiah 14:12 does mention the "morning star" or "son of the dawn" in many translations, however there is little that connects this individual with Satan. "Lucifer" is of course the word used in Latin, and happens to also be the word used in 2 Peter 1:19. The word is an adjective, and not necessarily a name.

In the Isaiah passage, I don't think the context suggests it to be speaking of any type of fallen being though. The taunt in this text is directed towards the King of Babylon and it seems outside of the text to read eisegetically some other being into the context.

Venus, the planet, is known as the "morning star," and also as "lucifer" in history. This is because it's an early light in the sky, shining in the morning. I believe the language here in Isaiah is descriptive of the King, and illustrates the magnitude of his coming fall using pretty allegorical language.

{ answered by Jonathan Sampson }
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